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❶American Heritage goes further, discussing issues separately in numerous "usage notes.

Chaologist: James Gleick on being cited in the OED

DICTIONARY Defined for English Language Learners

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Word of the Day. It is true also that I did lay my hands upon this jack-fool of a brother Ambrose, though, as you can see, I did him little scathe. Using infinitives Infinitives are used to express an action as a concept, rather than what is being done or performed by the subject of a clause.

In this way, they can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs—that is, nearly any role in a sentence except what? Article of the Day. Gloomy Sunday Written in by Hungarian composer Rezso Seress, the song "Gloomy Sunday" has been the subject of several urban legends.

Recorded and performed by numerous artists, notably Paul Robeson and Billie Holiday, the song was once called the "Hungarian suicide song" due to claims that it inspired hundreds of suicides in Hungary and in the US. Further legends claimed that performances and radio broadcasts of the song were banned as a result.

What fact about Seress likely fueled some of the legends? This Day in History. The first probes were intended either to pass very close to the Moon—performing a flyby—or crash directly into it—a maneuver known as a hard landing.

The Soviets were the first to succeed in the latter objective. Luna 2 impacted the lunar surface on September 14, Jan Masaryk Masaryk, a diplomat and politician in newly independent Czechoslovakia, was named ambassador to Britain in Following the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, he became foreign minister of the Czech government in exile in London. He supported cooperation with the Soviet Union and maintained his post after the Communist takeover of Czechoslovakia in Two weeks later, Masaryk was found dead outside his window in the Foreign Ministry.

What are the conflicting explanations for his death? Quotation of the Day. His book contained seventy thousand words, of which twelve thousand had never appeared in a published dictionary before. As a spelling reformer , Webster believed that English spelling rules were unnecessarily complex, so his dictionary introduced American English spellings, replacing "colour" with "color", substituting "wagon" for "waggon", and printing "center" instead of "centre".

He also added American words, like "skunk" and "squash", that did not appear in British dictionaries. At the age of seventy, Webster published his dictionary in ; it sold copies. In , the second edition was published in two volumes. In a general dictionary, each word may have multiple meanings. Some dictionaries include each separate meaning in the order of most common usage while others list definitions in historical order, with the oldest usage first.

In many languages, words can appear in many different forms, but only the undeclined or unconjugated form appears as the headword in most dictionaries. Dictionaries are most commonly found in the form of a book, but some newer dictionaries, like StarDict and the New Oxford American Dictionary are dictionary software running on PDAs or computers. There are also many online dictionaries accessible via the Internet. According to the Manual of Specialized Lexicographies , a specialized dictionary , also referred to as a technical dictionary, is a dictionary that focuses upon a specific subject field.

Following the description in The Bilingual LSP Dictionary , lexicographers categorize specialized dictionaries into three types: A multi-field dictionary broadly covers several subject fields e. For example, the language Inter-Active Terminology for Europe is a multi-field dictionary, the American National Biography is a single-field, and the African American National Biography Project is a sub-field dictionary. In terms of the coverage distinction between "minimizing dictionaries" and "maximizing dictionaries", multi-field dictionaries tend to minimize coverage across subject fields for instance, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions and Yadgar Dictionary of Computer and Internet Terms [21] whereas single-field and sub-field dictionaries tend to maximize coverage within a limited subject field The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology.

Another variant is the glossary , an alphabetical list of defined terms in a specialized field, such as medicine medical dictionary. The simplest dictionary, a defining dictionary , provides a core glossary of the simplest meanings of the simplest concepts.

From these, other concepts can be explained and defined, in particular for those who are first learning a language. In English, the commercial defining dictionaries typically include only one or two meanings of under words. With these, the rest of English, and even the most common English idioms and metaphors , can be defined. Lexicographers apply two basic philosophies to the defining of words: Noah Webster , intent on forging a distinct identity for the American language, altered spellings and accentuated differences in meaning and pronunciation of some words.

This is why American English now uses the spelling color while the rest of the English-speaking world prefers colour. Similarly, British English subsequently underwent a few spelling changes that did not affect American English; see further at American and British English spelling differences. American Heritage goes further, discussing issues separately in numerous "usage notes.

Because of the widespread use of dictionaries in schools, and their acceptance by many as language authorities, their treatment of the language does affect usage to some degree, with even the most descriptive dictionaries providing conservative continuity.

In the long run, however, the meanings of words in English are primarily determined by usage, and the language is being changed and created every day.

The roots of language are irrational and of a magical nature. Sometimes the same dictionary can be descriptive in some domains and prescriptive in others.

A historical dictionary is a specific kind of descriptive dictionary which describes the development of words and senses over time, usually using citations to original source material to support its conclusions. In contrast to traditional dictionaries, which are designed to be used by human beings, dictionaries for natural language processing NLP are built to be used by computer programs. The final user is a human being but the direct user is a program.

Such a dictionary does not need to be able to be printed on paper. The structure of the content is not linear, ordered entry by entry but has the form of a complex network see Diathesis alternation. Because most of these dictionaries are used to control machine translations or cross-lingual information retrieval CLIR the content is usually multilingual and usually of huge size.

In order to allow formalized exchange and merging of dictionaries, an ISO standard called Lexical Markup Framework LMF has been defined and used among the industrial and academic community. In many languages, such as the English language, the pronunciation of some words is not consistently apparent from their spelling. In these languages, dictionaries usually provide the pronunciation. Yet others use their own pronunciation respelling systems without diacritics: Some online or electronic dictionaries provide audio recordings of words being spoken.

The age of the Internet brought online dictionaries to the desktop and, more recently, to the smart phone. There exist a number of websites which operate as online dictionaries, usually with a specialized focus.

Some of them have exclusively user driven content, often consisting of neologisms. Some of the more notable examples include:.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Online dictionary. For other uses, see Dictionary disambiguation. Comparison of English dictionaries. List of online dictionaries. Dictionaries, compilers, critics, and users. Archived from the original on Philitas of Cos as scholar and poet". Retrieved 5 August Eckmann, Encyclopaedia of Islam , 2nd ed.

Retrieved 13 October Considine 27 March

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